International Journal of Professional Practice <p>The International Journal of Professional Practice (The IJPP) is an interdisciplinary journal published by Kenya Methodist University and dedicated to the publication of research articles, perspectives and commentaries related to social and economic life as well as innovation. The IJPP publishes articles from scholars globally and irrespective of country of origin, institutional affiliation, race, color, gender or creed. Articles published in The IJPP are blind peer-reviewed to ensure that their content is suitable for publication. IJPP is a multidisciplinary journal that has come of age.</p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> <strong><a href="">2790-9468</a></strong></p> Kenya Methodist University en-US International Journal of Professional Practice 2790-9468 <p>I/We agree to transfer the copyright of this manuscript to the <strong><em>International Journal of Professional&nbsp;</em></strong><strong><em>Practice (The IJPP) </em></strong>in the event that the manuscript is published in the Journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;I/We give the undersigned authors of the manuscript have made the following declaration:</p> <p><em>(a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have made substantial contribution during the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of the data,</em></p> <p><em>(b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have participated in drafting the article or revising it critically for important&nbsp;</em><em>intellectual content,</em></p> <p><em>(c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have read and confirm the content of the manuscript and have agreed to it,</em></p> <p><em>(d)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the paper,</em></p> <p><em>(e)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We give guarantee that the content of the manuscript is original, and has not beenv</em><em>published elsewhere and is not currently being considered for publication by another&nbsp;</em><em>journal.</em></p> Use of Whatsapp Messaging in Enhancing Public Participation in the Budgeting Process <p>Globally, the use of Whatsapp messaging has gained power. Just like many social media platforms, Whatsapp provides a platform for instantaneous sharing of information. Many people in Migori County have not been able to participate in the county budgeting process because of ineffective communication channel. The purpose of the study was to design a feasible Whatsapp messaging adoption model which can be used by Migori county government to enhance public participation in budgeting process. The objective of this study was to examine the use of Whatsapp messaging in enhancing public participation in budgeting process. This study used a survey design because it involved exploring people’s opinion and attitudes towards the use of Whatsapp messaging. It was underpinned on the Technology Acceptance Mode (TAM) and Participatory Development Theory. The study was conducted in Awendo, Rongo and Suna East Sub Counties in Migori County, with a study population of 143,468. A sample size of 399, comprising of 392 individuals drawn from the general public, and 7 county government staff sampled using systematic random and purposive sampling method respectively, participated in the study. Analysis was done through narration and measures of frequencies for qualitative and quantitative data respectively. The researcher did content validity with the assistance of an expert and test-retest to examine the validity and reliability respectively. This study revealed that majority of the respondents proposed the use of WhatsApp messaging for public participation because of its convenience, timely communication, and ease of use. The respondents however indicated that issues of the high cost of bundles, non-inclusivity and poor coordination should be addressed. It was concluded that the county of Migori has not embraced WhatsApp messaging budgeting process. The study recommended the adoption of WhatsApp messaging by Migori County. Use of voice messages is necessary to enhance WhatsApp messaging communication.</p> George Omondi Juma Millicent Otieno John Oluoch Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-02 2023-02-02 11 1 1 19 10.1234/ijpp.v11i1.289 How Wesleyan Theological Methodist Approach has Shaped Education in Kenya <p>Methodist education has been widely viewed as a tool for evangelism and societal improvement, thereby contributing enormously to personal, educational, social and spiritual development. This holistic development is achieved through encouraging Christians to seek what is good and acceptable to God rather than conforming to the patterns of the world. The history of Methodist education is described by John Wesley, who viewed education as a channel to accessing God’s grace. This paper aimed to describe how Wesleyan Methodist approach has contributed to shaping theological eduaction in Kenya. Through systematic review, the paper provides insights into the development and value of Methodist education in Kenya. The literature reviewed indicates that besides being a life changing experience, Methodist education is recognized for the values it instills in children and learners, which include self control, understanding, strong work ethics, and commitment to serving others. These virtues have been achieved despite declining enrollment in Methodist schools and fear of religious indoctrination among some parents. The significance of Methodist education in higher education and the general education system in Kenya has also been discussed in this study. The study recommends the need for a value-based education system that supports intergration of Methodist education into holistic education system in Kenya and beyond.</p> Mary Kathambi Kinoti Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-02 2023-02-02 11 1 20 30 Influence of Religious Beliefs and Hopefulness on Women’s Stay in Abusive Marriages in Kiambu Sub-County, Kenya <p>This study sought to assess the influence of religious beliefs and hopefulness on women’s stay in abusive marriages in Kiambu Sub-County, Kenya. The study employed a mixed method approach under descriptive survey design. Respondents were drawn from half-way home called ‘safe spaces’ in Kiambu Sub-County; and Census method was used to recruit 38 women sheltered in ‘safe spaces’ home. The respondents filled in questionnaires and participated in focused group discussions (FGDs). Data were analysed descriptively utilizing means, standard deviations, proportions and percentages. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS v.25. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied in assessing how the variables of the study related. Quantitative findings were presented in tables and figures. Qualitative results were analyzed in themes and reported verbatim. Findings indicated that women’s religious beliefs had an impact on whether or not they stayed in abusive marital unions as most were not ready to quit their marriages due to their religious beliefs (mean = 4.27) and their hopefulness for better times ahead (mean = 4.27). Further, a statistically notable and positive connection existed between the women’s religious beliefs and their stay in abusive marriages (β = 0.712, p&lt;0.05), and between women’s hopefulness and their stay in abusive marriages (β = 0.769, p&lt;0.05). The study recommends that empowerment initiatives for women to deal with abusive marriages should give due consideration to and incorporate the affected women’s religious beliefs and hopefulness attributes in seeking solutions to their marital challenges.</p> Ruth Wanjiku Njama Zipporah Kaaria Gregory Kivanguli Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Professional Practice 2023-04-05 2023-04-05 11 1 31 40 10.1234/ijpp.v11i1.179 Influence of Parental Socio-Cultural Status on Prevention of Teenage Pregnancies in Narok-North Sub-County, Narok County, Kenya <p>Teenage pregnancy is detrimental to the wellbeing of teenage girls because of its negative impact on health, social and educational outcomes. Parents may encounter challenges that prevent them from helping their daughters in preventing pregnancies. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate influence of parental socio-cultural status on prevention of teenage pregnancies. The study was guided by the Social Network Theory. Descriptive Cross-Sectional Survey Design and Mixed Method approach directed the study. The target population of the research was 59,996 families in Narok-North Sub- County. Snowball sampling was applied to obtain a sample size of 165 families from the target population. Simple random sampling was applied to get 10 Key Informants. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. Internal consistency was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.85. Validity was confirmed with the help of experts from the department and in training of Research Assistants. Data was examined by use of SPSS version 26.0. The Pearson Correlation test revealed that parental socio-cultural status has moderate&nbsp;and positive influence on prevention of teenage pregnancy (at P value &lt;.05 Mean r = .54). Majority (82.6%) of respondents endorsed that cultural norms encourage early marriages. Majority (42.9%) of respondents endorsed that teenagers get into sexual relationships in order to meet basic needs. This aligns with the assumption of the Social Network Theory’s application to this study, that the family unit’s outcome in terms of teenage pregnancies is influenced by the cultural norms that surround the respondents. The Study therefore recommends that the Ministry of Interior and National Administration to strengthen policy aimed at curbing cultural practices that predispose teenage girls to pregnancies.</p> Elon M. Akuno Lazarus Millan Okello Wilson A. P. Otengah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-28 2023-04-28 11 1 41 52 10.1234/ijpp.v11i1.309 How Teachers' Satisfaction with Dispute Resolutions and Negotiations Relate with Teachers’ Trade Union Membership in Public Secondary Schools in Embu County, Kenya <p>Teachers are expected to work harmoniously with their employers, and contribute to effective management of schools. Embu County is in record for having posted poor Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) results since 2017. This is an indicator of unharmonious working relationship between teachers and their employer. The study assessed teachers trade unions ability to resolve disputes among school stakeholders and how these dispute resolutions impact on management of public secondary schools in Embu county.In particular, the study investigated the relationship between trade union membership and teachers' satisfaction with negations and dispute resolution in public secondary schools in Embu County. &nbsp;A quantitative approach was used in this study, and a descriptive survey research design adopted. A target population of 2400 teachers, 205 principals was considered; where 10% was applied to get a sample of 240 teachers and 21 principals. The study used questionnaires for both the teachers and the principals. Descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and standard deviation, and simple linear regression were performed. The findings revealed that teachers were satisfied with unions guaranteeing job security for teachers, mediating between the employee and the employer, negotiating for better conditions, promoting fairness, reduction of workload and giving good representation for both teachers and principals. There was a positive relationship between trade union membership and teachers' satisfaction with disputes resolutions. Therefore, unionization results showed that resolving disputes in public secondary schools increased satisfaction for both teachers and principals; hence, enhanced school management. The study recommended that the government takes part in public campaigns to encourage teachers to join unions for increased solidarity and satisfaction. It also recommended that teachers trade unions together with school management, as well as TSC should ensure disputes are resolved before any industrial action is taken so as to promote good performance in secondary schools in Kenya.</p> Mary M. Mugambi Tarsilla Kibaara Isaac Kaberia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-28 2023-04-28 11 1 53 65 10.1234/ijpp.v11i1.310 Influence of Principals’ Innovation on Financial Management in Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya <p>Principals’ receptivity to innovative ways of running the operations of their institutions should be based on methods that minimize costs, save time and allow excellence. However, there is inadequate financial resources that disallow adequate use of digital resources in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of principals’ receptivity to innovation on financial management in secondary schools in Meru County, Kenya. The study used descriptive research design, and targeted a population of 389 secondary schools. The study used simple random sampling method to get a sample of 117 secondary schools. It further used purposive sampling method to obtain 117 principals. The study used drop and pick method to administer questionnaires to the respondents. Piloting of research instruments was done in twelve secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County. The study analysed quantitative data using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and mean. It also carried out correlation analysis to test hypothesis. The results revealed that 80(92%) were in agreement on a mean of 4.93 that donors and sponsors were more convinced in investing their financial resources in the schools. However, 66(76%) were not in agreement on a mean of 2.82 that the school had made plans to ensure that all departments adopted various technological and social innovation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was r=0.286** at α &lt; 0.000 and 99% significance level, hence as a positive influence; thereby rejected the null hypothesis. The study concluded that digitalization was only used by the management, while departments required to prepare departmental budgets manually. This slowed the process of decision making for the principals. The study recommended that the ministry of education considers increasing annual funding for secondary schools. Principals should also explain to the management boards the need to digitalize the whole school as opposed to a few departments.</p> Sarah Njeri Mungai Severina Mwirichia Paul Gichohi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-28 2023-04-28 11 1 66 77 10.1234/ijpp.v11i1.311