International Journal of Professional Practice <p>The International Journal of Professional Practice (The IJPP) is an interdisciplinary journal published by Kenya Methodist University and dedicated to the publication of research articles, perspectives and commentaries related to social and economic life as well as innovation. The IJPP publishes articles from scholars globally and irrespective of country of origin, institutional affiliation, race, color, gender or creed. Articles published in The IJPP are blind peer-reviewed to ensure that their content is suitable for publication. IJPP is a multidisciplinary journal that has come of age.</p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> <strong><a href="">2790-9468</a></strong></p> Kenya Methodist University en-US International Journal of Professional Practice 2790-9468 <p>I/We agree to transfer the copyright of this manuscript to the <strong><em>International Journal of Professional&nbsp;</em></strong><strong><em>Practice (The IJPP) </em></strong>in the event that the manuscript is published in the Journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;I/We give the undersigned authors of the manuscript have made the following declaration:</p> <p><em>(a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have made substantial contribution during the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of the data,</em></p> <p><em>(b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have participated in drafting the article or revising it critically for important&nbsp;</em><em>intellectual content,</em></p> <p><em>(c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have read and confirm the content of the manuscript and have agreed to it,</em></p> <p><em>(d)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content of the paper,</em></p> <p><em>(e)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; That I/We give guarantee that the content of the manuscript is original, and has not beenv</em><em>published elsewhere and is not currently being considered for publication by another&nbsp;</em><em>journal.</em></p> Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Homosexuality in Same Sex Boarding Secondary Schools, a Case of Kikuyu Sub-County, Kenya <p>The study aimed to examine psychosocial factors on homosexuality in same sex boarding secondary schools in Kikuyu Sub-County. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population comprised 1660 form three student from same sex boarding schools in Kikuyu-Sub County. Out of this number, a sample size of 183 respondents was obtained. Proportional sampling technique was used to select form 3 student respondents, while teacher counselors were selected by use of simple random sampling method. The study utilized structured, self-administered questionnaires to collect primary data. The study used Cronbach Alpha to test reliability and validity of research instrument. The quantitative data was analyzed using inferential statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed thematically and presented verbatim. The findings indicated that students who identified with homosexuality’s key and significant statements stated that their friends influenced how they spent their leisure time (x<sup>2</sup>=11.4, p=0.040), and that they wanted to behave the same way as their peers (x<sup>2</sup>=4.08, p=0.082). Respondents believed that a rape victim was likely to become homosexual later in life (<em>x</em><sup>2</sup>=11.47, p=0.089). The study revealed that child abuse and peer pressure had significant effects on homosexuality in same sex boarding schools. Therefore, the school management should implement policies and strategies to reduce peer pressure among students in shaping their sexual orientation. The Ministry of Education should strengthen guidance and counseling departments by having teachers in the department trained on basic counselling skills to offer students psychosocial support that would enhance behavior change in relation to child abuse and peer pressure, and thereby address homosexuality.</p> Hannah Macharia Zipporah Kaaria Kaberia Limukii Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 12 1 1 12 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.420 Factors that Influenced Clinic Utilization by Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients during COVID-19 Pandemic at The Kakamega County General Hospital <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has an estimated global disease burden of 85- 89%, a prevalence rate of 5.3% in Kenya, and an increased mortality hazard. While sounding an alert at the onset of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the World Health Organization (WHO) noted the greater risk of COVID-19 deaths in older individuals and those with chronic diseases like DM. This study examined the influence of exposure variables such as patient characteristics, disease complexity, facility-related factors, and COVID-19 restrictions on utilization of diabetes mellitus type II (DM II) clinics during the Covid-19 pandemic at Kakamega County General Hospital (KCGH). The study employed cross sectional survey research design. A sample size of 211 randomly sampled DM II patients and 6 health care workers purposively sampled for Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was obtained from a target population of 467 DM II patients attending diabetes clinic at KCGH, and 12 healthcare workers. Data was collected using structured questionnaire for the DM II patients, and an interview guide for FGD. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically, while descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze quantitative data. Findings revealed a significant association of p&lt;0.05 between 6 out of 10 exposure variables investigated and the outcome variable. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the highest odds ratio of 2.0 for medication availability and lowest odds ratio of 0.3 for lack of family support. The study recommends that KCGH, superintendent, in consultation with healthcare workers in charge of the diabetes clinic and the county department of health develops a strategy to implement telemedicine adaptation policies and surveillance to reduce in person clinic visits. In addition, KCGH superintendent should collaborate with the national health ministry to establish a resilient medical supply policy for pandemics.</p> Carolyne Mukhaya Mulanda Wanja Mwaura-Tenambergen Kezia Njoroge Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 12 1 13 24 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.368 Religion and Abortion in Kenya <p>This study focuses on the escalating prevalence of abortion in modern Kenyan society. It argues that societal attitudes towards abortion, particularly within Christian communities, have evolved due to factors like sexual revolution and secular humanistic ideologies. 323 women from 11 sub-counties of Meru County were sampled for this study. The study was guided by the divine command theory. Descriptive survey design was adopted for this study, and data was collected using questionnaires. &nbsp;Validity and reliability was ensured through alignment with research objectives and the split-half technique. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in data analysis, and findings presented in tables and figures. Results revealed a correlation between level of education and likelihood for abortion, with a higher abortion prevalence among respondents with a bachelor's degrees. The primary reasons cited for abortion were unplanned pregnancy and medical concerns. While most respondents opposed abortion for any reason, they were more accepting in cases of maternal risk or foetal anomaly. However, all respondents rejected abortion for sex selection or underage girls. These findings suggest the need for comprehensive reproductive health education, support for women with unplanned pregnancies, and policies promoting reproductive healthcare access, and women's rights protection. The study further recommends efforts to reduce abortion stigma within the church, and to provide support for women choosing termination.</p> Mary Kinoti Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 12 1 25 39 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.427 The Influence of Curriculum on Teaching and Learning Management for Pupils with Intellectual Disability in Special Schools, Meru County, Kenya <p>Effective teaching and learning for pupils with intellectual disabilities (ID) is vital in promoting socio-economic development in Kenya. However, pupils with intellectual disabilities are neglected, resulting in exclusion and reduced academic achievement. Although special schools exist in Meru County to serve these pupils, providing quality, tailored-made teaching and learning remains challenging in spite of the comprehensive education policies supporting disability mainstreaming. This study investigated how curriculum influences teaching and learning management for intellectually disabled pupils in special schools in Meru County. Guided by bioecological theory, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach with a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. The target population included 45 teachers, four head teachers, 387 parents, 4 Sub-County Directors of Education, and 4 Teachers' Service Commission Sub-County Directors across four special schools in Meru County. Proportionate random sampling technique selected 45 teachers, 32 parents, four head teachers, 4 Sub-County Directors of Education, and 4 Teachers' Service Commission Sub-County Directors as the sample. Data was collected using questionnaires, focus group discussions, and interviews, with validity and reliability testing of the tools. The results revealed a significant perception gap regarding the alignment of the curriculum with intellectually disabled pupils' needs, indicating a need to better understand their challenges. The study highlights a significant perception gap regarding alignment of the current curriculum with the unique needs and capabilities of pupils with intellectual disabilities in special schools in Meru County. Results emphasize the necessity for a flexible, inclusive curriculum informed by principles of Universal Design for Learning, expert collaboration, and ongoing curriculum evaluation to promote special education practices. The study recommends the Ministry of Education to review Kenya's special education policies and curriculum to ensure alignment with the unique learning needs of intellectually disabled pupils.</p> Esther Kaario M’Birithu Severina Mwirichia Paul Maku Gichohi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 12 1 40 52 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.237 Enhancing Infant Feeding Practices through Nutrition Behaviour Change Communication among Mothers in Marsabit County, Kenya <p>Adherence to proper feeding practices for infants and young children has proven to significantly decrease instances of malnutrition in countries with lower to middle incomes. Despite this, little is known about the impact of behaviour change communication on infant feeding practices, specifically in Marsabit County. The objective of this study was to investigate how adherence to nutrition behaviour change communication affects the way mothers feed their infants and young children. Using a cross-sectional descriptive survery design, data was collected from four sub-counties in Marsabit County. The sample included 316 participants who were mothers or caregivers of children &lt;5 years from the total target population. The sample was obtained using cluster sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Closed-ended questionnaires were used to collect data. The data was analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics with SPSS v25. Around 46% of the participants had received primary school education. Majority of the mothers were between 21 to 30 years (50.9%), and 86.1% were married. Individualized counseling sessions (84.5%) and household outreaches (81.6%) were the most frequently employed interpersonal counseling and communication approaches. Group-oriented methods such as social networks (86.2%) and group education (95.1%) proved most effective in promoting proper feeding practices for infants and young children (p &lt; 0.05). There were no significant associations (p &gt; 0.05) between interpersonal counseling and communication strategies and socio-demographic factors like age, education, marital status, and place of birth. Group-based approaches were notably influenced by education (p = 0.03) and place of birth (p = 0.02). The community's acceptance of infant and young child feeding practices via both interpersonal counseling and communication and group-based counseling approaches have been implemented by the Marsabit County Government. However, this achievement has not translated into the anticipated improvement in nutrition outcomes or the reduction of malnutrition in Marsabit as anticipated</p> Rufo Liban Job Mapesa Charles Wafula Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 12 1 53 67 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.379 A Study on Dietary, Energy and Nutrient Intake among Long Distance Athletes in Ngong’ Private Training Camps, Kenya <p>This study focused on long-distance athletes training in selected private training camps in Ngong area, Kenya. The study was informed by inadequacy of food, calorie, Protein, Calcium and Iron intake reported by research findings. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design and the whole population of 36 athletes comprising 23 men and 13 women athletes participated. Food frequency questionnaire was used to collect data on food intake, while 24-hour Food Recall was used to determine their mean daily intake. Standard measuring equipment were used for accuracy of the results. The data was then analyzed by determining percentage and means of food and nutrient intake, and results presented in graphical and tabular form. Inferential statistics were done using t-test, to establish the difference between calorie intake by men and women, as well as difference in intake of protein, fat, calcium and iron by the two groups. Results indicate that dairy products and cereals were the most frequently consumed foods at 96%, followed by green leafy vegetables at 88% and meat at 63 %. The mean daily carbohydrate intake for women and men was 37.4% and 47.9% respectively, while the average daily fat intake was 39% and 37 % of the RDA respectively. Mean daily protein intake for women and men was at 54.6% and 58.9%, and the mean daily iron intake was at 53.1% and 79.8% of the RDA for men and women respectively. The average calcium intake for women and men was at 59% and 68.8% of the RDA respectively. The findings indicated that there was diversity in diet in athlete training camps, but calorie and nutrient intake was inadequate. There was need therefore, for coaches to incorporate sports’ nutrition education in training camps to sensitize athletes on good dietary habits inorder to ensure adequate nutrition for optimal performance.</p> Lawrence Mugambi Okoth Michael Wandayi Ooko George Abong' Jeff Wamiti Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Professional Practice 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 12 1 68 79 10.1234/ijpp.v12i1.339
ttps://" slot gacor slot gacor